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Alarming Revelations: Carmakers Accused of Utilizing Aluminum Linked to Uyghur Forced Labor, NGO Investigation Discovers

BusinessAlarming Revelations: Carmakers Accused of Utilizing Aluminum Linked to Uyghur Forced Labor, NGO Investigation Discovers

Allegations of Uyghur Forced Labor in Automotive Supply Chains

Concerns Over Aluminum Sourcing in China

In a recent report by Human Rights Watch (HRW), several major carmakers, including General Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, Tesla, and BYD, are highlighted for their potential use of aluminum produced by forced labor in China’s Xinjiang province. The report raises concerns about the lack of transparency and due diligence in tracking the supply chains of these automotive giants, particularly in relation to aluminum sourcing.

China’s Dominance in Car Manufacturing and Aluminum Production

China holds a significant position as both the world’s largest car manufacturer and the largest producer of aluminum. Aluminum is a crucial component in various automotive parts, including tires, windshield wipers, and electric vehicle (EV) batteries. Approximately one-fifth of China’s aluminum is produced in Xinjiang, a region where human rights abuses, including forced labor and forced sterilization, have been reported against ethnic minority Muslims.

Lack of Supply Chain Transparency

HRW’s report points out that many carmakers are not adequately tracking their supply chains in China. Some have allegedly succumbed to pressure from the Chinese government, applying weaker sourcing standards in their Chinese joint ventures compared to their global operations. The lack of transparency raises concerns about the extent of exposure to forced labor in these supply chains, leaving consumers uncertain about the ethical sourcing of the vehicles they purchase.

Specific Concerns Regarding Car Manufacturers

While HRW expresses broad concerns about the potential spread of aluminum produced by forced labor in Xinjiang to car manufacturing globally, the report singles out five major car manufacturers – Toyota, Volkswagen, General Motors, Tesla, and BYD – due to specific concerns about their links to factories and companies within China.

HRW’s Concerns and Allegations

HRW’s concerns revolve around the connection between aluminum smelters in Xinjiang and Chinese government-backed labor transfer programs. These programs allegedly coerce Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims into jobs in Xinjiang and other regions. The report cites “credible evidence” from Chinese state media, company reports, and government statements, indicating the involvement of Xinjiang’s aluminum producers in these labor transfer programs.

Challenges in Tracing Aluminum

While some countries have banned products made in Xinjiang, tracing materials like aluminum can be challenging. The report highlights the difficulty of tracking aluminum’s journey once it leaves Xinjiang in the form of ingots, as these ingots are melted down and mixed with materials from other provinces. This makes it nearly impossible to determine whether aluminum, potentially linked to forced labor, enters domestic and global supply chains undetected.

HRW’s Recommendations and Industry Response

HRW suggests that car manufacturers could directly source aluminum from smelters outside Xinjiang to minimize the risk of using materials produced by forced labor. Manufacturers are also encouraged to demand better source mapping and information from their aluminum suppliers.

Industry Response

Toyota, BYD, Volkswagen, Tesla, and General Motors have each provided varying responses to HRW’s allegations. Toyota stated that it would closely review the HRW report and expects its suppliers to respect human rights. BYD and Tesla did not respond to HRW’s inquiries. Volkswagen acknowledged having “blind spots” in its global supply chain for aluminum but asserted that it takes human rights responsibility seriously. General Motors expressed commitment to conducting due diligence and addressing potential risks related to forced labor but did not provide a detailed response.


The HRW report sheds light on the potential use of aluminum produced by forced labor in the automotive industry’s supply chains, specifically implicating major car manufacturers operating in China. As the industry faces scrutiny, addressing these concerns and implementing more transparent and ethical supply chain practices will be essential to ensure that consumers can have confidence in the ethical sourcing of the vehicles they purchase.

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